Aclimatação e introdução de orquídeas da espécie Catasetum fimbriatum produzidas pelo processo de clonagem de estiolamento

Alunas: Carolina Saraiva Rector e Marina Adde Anuardo
Profª. Orientador(a): Nilce de Angelo e Fernando Campos de Domenico
Profª Coorientador(a): Sandra Maria Rudella Tonidandel

Ano: 2015


Medalha de bronze na categoria “Genius Science”


          Orchids are being ornamental plants most appreciated since ancient times. Under natural conditions, propagation occurs by proliferation of orchids of lateral shoots or through the spread of seeds produced by the thousands inside the capsule orchid. However, the spread of seeds is very difficult and can not guarantee the germination since they are devoid of nutritive tissue depends on germination and associations with symbiotic fungi, called mycorrhizae. Furthermore, after germination, the orchids have extremely slow development may take about eight years to reach reproductive age. Difficulties in multiplication of orchids in their natural environment, the market for illegal extraction and destruction of habitats of these plants has driven many species to extinction while others are seriously threatened. The cloning of orchids in vitro and cultivation to bottling methods are very important, because they facilitate the multiplication of several species, with the benefit of fixing genetic gains, reduce the spread of pests and diseases and make the product more attractive to consumers. From this relevance the project was organized into three phases. In the first stage, the plants were produced by in vitro culture by cloning technique etiolation , the flasks containing the culture medium for plants were kept for 6 months in an environment where temperature and light conditions were controlled. In the second stage of our work, we decided to prepare the plants to promote greater success in acclimatization ex vitro, is defined as the stage in which the plants are transferred to a natural environment, which leads to a very large stress. It is during this phase that occur many losses of plants. The plants were taken from the culture medium and bottled in Sphagnum. The pots were kept in an environment with partially controlled physical conditions. In this transitional phase, used as irrigation solution foliar silicon, an essential macronutrient, we have selected for the project because it is widely used in agricultural and ornamental plants, and in its composition the elements potassium (K) and silicon (Si) . To determine the effectiveness of treatment with silicon, maintained a control plants without the addition of macronutrient group, while the experimental group was watered with the same every 15 days. Then measured, after 3 months of watering, the length of the leaves and pseudo bulbs. No significant difference between groups (P> 0.05) and conclude that the addition of silicon has brought benefits to plants, at least in this short interval irrigation with macronutrient. However, no loss of any plant. In the third stage of the project, we selected the Ibirapuera parks, where plants were introduced as epiphytes on trunks of phorophytes chosen on the basis of characteristics that favor the establishment of an epiphyte. The epiphytism is important because it facilitates nutrient cycling, which contributes to the development and exuberance of forests, providing microhabitats and food to other life forms.

Palavras-chave: cloning, in vitro, acclimatization, epiphytism.